This is the development version of the EuroLM Achievement Information model. Please add comments and changes directly to the wiki text or send them directly to Cleo Sgouropoulou, who will integrate them.
- Normative References
- Other References
- Terms and Definitions
- European Learner Mobility Achievement Information Model
- Vocabulary Encoding Schemes
- The EuroLMAI Description Set Profile
- Recommended Uses of the EuroLMAI Model
The European Learner Mobility (EuroLM) Achievement Information Model
aspires to address the identified need for a harmonized solution on the recording and exchange of learner mobility information within the European Education Area. The results of this work will contribute to the effort towards interoperable European-wide IT systems that manage and exchange learner achievement information.
The EuroLM Achievement Information work has its roots in the European transparency tools and especially in the Europass framework for the transparent description of qualifications and competences. Europass provides the common basis for the well-structured recording of all life-long learning opportunities taken, including European Higher Education structures and learners' private and institution-owned information. The EuroLM Achievement Information Model is expected to result in a multipart standard, however in this phase the main focus will be on the representation of formal, institution attested achievement information.
The development of the proposed model has been carried out within the context of the CEN WSLT project on "Guidelines for a European Learner Mobility Model", funded under the 2008 ICT Standardization Work Programme. The project was initiated and led by Cleo Sgouropoulou (ELOT, Greece). The appointed project team also comprised the following experts: Simon Grant (UK, JISC-CETIS), Erlend Øverby (Norway, Hypatia AS) and Simone Ravaioli (Italy, KION). Other experts contributing to this work have been: Scott Wilson (UK, JISC-CETIS), Mark Stubbs (UK, MMU), Christian Stracke (Germany, Vice Chair CEN TC 353), Geir Vangen (Norway, USIT/UiO), Andy Dowling (Ireland, Digitary), Luis Anido Rifón (Spain, University of Vigo) and Alessandra Biancolini (Italy, IFSOL).The close collaboration and substantial support of the Rome Student Systems and Standards Group of software implementers regarding the EuroLM standardisation efforts is highly acknowledged.
The establishment of Europass as a common framework which is accepted throughout Europe demonstrates that European education has reached a maturity stage where there is a demand for the recording and exchange of learner mobility information needs to be efficiently supported by technical interoperability standards.
At the initiation point of this project several relevant standardization efforts were identified and significant national expertise had already been accumulated. However, harmonization was deemed necessary towards a European solution, in order to provide viable support for emerging European student management information systems and dissuade service providers from developing proprietary services and platforms.
The results of the current and future EuroLM work aspire to support the development of a new generation of technology-enhanced services for learners (learning and employment opportunities exploration), higher education institutions (certification or augmentation of learner information), employers (work-place descriptions, recruiting and development of learners' competences) and other stakeholders of learning, education and training throughout Europe, as the European Union and Commission, the Member States and their governments and ministries, etc.
The EuroLM Achievement Information Model seeks to address directly the European requirement for rapid implementation and dissemination of the institution-owned transparency information tools throughout Europe. As such, the Europass Diploma Supplement (DS) is considered one of the most important Europass documents, having an essential role in the transparent interpretation and recognition of academic and professional qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certificates) across the diverse European educational systems map. The Europass DS aims at:
- Promoting transparency within and between higher education systems;
- Providing accurate and up-to-date information on an individual's qualifications;
- Aiding mobility and access to further study and employment abroad;
- Providing fair and informed information relating to qualifications; and
- Facilitating academic and professional recognition and thus increasing the transparency of qualifications.
The Europass DS constitutes an instrument upon which a high level of agreement on the content and structure has been achieved among the EU member states. Most of the European countries have taken up the DS initiative and have specified their national variants, in most cases being minor variations of the Europass DS. However, currently the DS is mostly issued in paper-based format. In cases where it is issued electronically, the DS is represented in a proprietary manner. A major problem has been the lack of interoperable tools, impeding the recording and/or reuse of data in existing student management systems for the production of an electronic DS and the exchange of information among interested parties.
This EuroLM Achievement Information (EuroLMAI) Model will be developed as a generic model for representing the institution attested achievements of a learner within a formal learning setting, resulting from the learner's participation in one or more learning opportunity instances and including any available associated results. The Europass institution-owned learner achievement information structures, namely the Europass Diploma Supplement and the Europass Mobility, as well as other official achievement information reports (e.g. the learner's Transcript of records), will be specified as application profiles of the EuroLMAI model.
This document specifies, first, a skeleton (subset) of the generic EuroLMAI model, and, second, building on that skeleton, an Application Profile for the Europass Diploma Supplement. Other learner mobility achievement structures (e.g. that of Europass Mobility), set the requirements for the future enhancement of the skeleton model with additional information entities concerning assessment processes, intended learning outcomes, etc. New projects should be launched in order to develop these entities and provide the appropriate extensions to the EuroLMAI model.
This standard defines a model for the recording and exchange of learner achievement information among student management information systems, as well as the aggregation of information by third party suppliers.
The model proposed within the standard is not intended to define the representation of the entire spectrum of Learner Mobility information - the scope of the standard is restricted to the definition of the electronic representation of official, institutionally attested achievement information for learners engaged in formal learning processes, in order to facilitate its recording and subsequent exchange within the European Education Area.
Achievement Information structured and presented in compliance with this standard may, of course, be used for other purposes - for instance, providing descriptions of achievement to enrich a learner-owned report, in terms of an e-portfolio. However, guidance on the specification and organisation of information for purposes other than the representation of formal achievement reports is outside the scope of this standard.
The EuroLMAI model has been developed as:
- a lightweight standard taking into consideration existing and emerging educational practice processes
- an easy-to-implement standard in order to ensure a rapid uptake by stakeholders of learning, education and training throughout Europe (Higher Education Institutions, learners, employers, service providers, etc.)
The EuroLMAI Diploma Supplement Application Profile, in full compliance with the Europass requirements, focuses on the expression of information regarding the qualification awarded to a learner upon completion of a formal educational programme. The proposed profile is needed for the general purposes of:
- the exploitation of academic achievements abroad: in continuing education or in seeking job opportunities
- the admission of students or graduates in home and European universities: acknowledgment of credits or transfer of credits accumulated in home institutions moving from one university to another
- the expression of the level, content and nature of qualifications to potential employers both nationally and at a European level
- the enhancement of internal and European student mobility, from a university to another, or from one branch of studies to another
- the proper integration of foreign workers into a country's employment setting.
- the normalization of higher education qualifications, either in academic or non academic paths
- the establishment of good practices in the recognition procedures of qualifications among Higher Education Institutions
A strictly conforming instance is a set of structured information constituted only of objects and statements defined by the classes and properties of this standard and fully qualified refinements of the properties defined in this standard.
A fully qualified refinement is defined for the purpose of conformance as a property that explicitly extends a property defined by this standard. A fully qualified refinement must be capable of being processed according to the semantics of the property it extends. A conforming instance may contain additional objects and properties.
A strictly conforming binding is constituted only of bindings to an exchange format of the classes and properties defined by this standard and fully qualified refinements of the properties defined in this standard.
A conforming binding may contain additional properties that do not necessarily extend or map to the properties defined in this standard.
Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings must be capable of generating and validating instances that can be automatically converted to a strictly conforming instance of this standard.
Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings may impose additional constraints upon the values of properties defined in this standard.
Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings may impose cardinality constraints on properties defined in this standard.
A conforming application must have at least one of the following capabilities:
- Generating conforming instances and/or instances conforming to a conforming binding
- Processing conforming instances, and/or instances that conform to a conforming binding.
[OJ L 390, 31.12.2004] DECISION No 2241/2004/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 15 December 2004 on a single Community framework for the transparency of qualifications and competences (Europass)
[ECTS Users' Guide] ECTS Users' Guide http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/ects/guide_en.pdf
[DCMI-SF] DCMI Singapore Framework http://dublincore.org/documents/singapore-framework/
[DCMI-DSP] DCMI Description Set Profile http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/03/31/dc-dsp/
[UML] Unified Modelling Language, v2.1.2 http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.1.2/
[W3C-RDFS] W3C Resource Description Framework Schema Language 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/
[W3C-VCARD] W3C Note: Representing vCard Objects in RDF/XML http://www.w3.org/TR/vcard-rdf
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The notation "Term1 [Term2]" is used to denote that Term2 is a synonym of Term1. The notation "Term <Domain1> Definition1 <Domain2> Definition2" is used for the provision of multiple, domain-specific definitions of a term.
The recorded result of an assessment process
Organisation that awards credit or qualifications
The quantified means of expressing the volume of learning based on the workload students need in order to achieve the expected outcomes of a learning process at a specified level [ECTS Users' Guide]
Particular amount of credit
Official documentary record of the awarding of a qualification
System of concepts, definitions and provisions through which educational practices are ordered, related and articulated
Individual engaged in a learning process [ECTS Users' Guide]
Person currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity (course, seminar, work placement, programme, etc.).
Person currently or formerly enrolled in a formal educational programme
Formally specified education or training process [CWA 15903]
Single presentation of a learning opportunity
Organisation that validates or advertises learning opportunity specifications, or that runs learning opportunity instances
Description of a learning opportunity, consisting of information that will be consistent across multiple instances of the learning opportunity [CWA 15903]
One of a set of terms, properly defined within a framework or scheme, applied to an entity in order to group it together with other entities relevant to the same stage of education
Course unit in a system in which each course unit carries the same number of credits or a multiple thereof [ECTS Users' Guide]
Set of learning opportunities for successful completion of which the learner can be awarded a specified qualification.
Status awarded to or conferred on a learner by an awarding body
Collection of information, represented in a learner mobility achievement information report, about learning opportunity instances taken by a learner, including any available associated results for that learner
An assemblage of metadata elements selected from one or more metadata schemas and combined in a compound schema. The purpose of an application profile is to adapt or combine existing schemas into a package that is tailored to the functional requirements of a particular application, while retaining interoperability with the original base schemas.
A group containing members that have attributes behaviours, relationships or semantics in common.
The class of resource to which statements using a property may be made
A literal value for a property defined within a statement; this may be a plain literal value (such as a string and language term) or a typed literal value (such as a value and data type specification identifier)
A specific aspect, characteristic, attribute, or relation used to describe resources
The range of values that may be used for a property
An instantiation of a set of descriptions, created according to a binding specification
Anything that might be identified. Familiar examples include an electronic document, an image or a service
The superclass of a property
A combination of a property and a value specified for a resource
A uniform resource identifier
h2. 7. European Learner Mobility Achievement Information Model
This specification has been developed following the principles of the Singapore Framework for application profiles defined by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative [DCMI-SF].The EuroLMAI Model is defined in terms of:
- a Conceptual Model, aiming at the description of the semantics of the achievement information field through the representation of the participating entities and a series of assertions about its inherent processes, and
- a Domain Model, providing a detailed description of the DS resources and their associations
The CWA on "Guidelines for a European Learner Mobility Model" [CWA ZZZZ] specifies a high-level working model of the educational practice relevant to the learner mobility domain (Figure 1), in the context of which information arises - that is, the practice that generates information, parts of which are gathered together in mobility documents and reports.
Figure 1. Conceptual model of educational practice within EuroLM
The conceptual model illustrates the rough division of the subject matter into three distinctive parts: learning opportunity provision, award of credit or qualification, and assessment . Between these parts sits the learner, the learner's actions, and their results as evidence, which provide the basis for the rest of the system. Intended learning outcomes act as the proper bridge between learning opportunity provision and assessment. Without this bridge, the connections are more tenuous.
The above model provides the basis for the definition of a complete EuroLMAI model, under the condition of existence of the ingredient, standardised models, for the representation of each of the entities taking part into the educational practice. At the current point of maturity, standardisation advances within the learner mobility context can support modelling of practice and processes regarding the recording of the institution attested information about a learner's participation in a single or a set of learning opportunities and the associated qualifications and/or results obtained. Information representation concerning assessment processes or intended learning outcomes cannot yet be considered, given that relevant specifications are expected by future developments.
The above restrictions taken into account, a subset of the overall model is defined and illustrated in Figure 2 (marked in bold, in a detailed version of representation). This subset can be assumed as the conceptual foundation for the development of the EuroLMAI skeleton model, regarding mainly the representation of institution attested information on learning opportunities taken by a learner and the possible associated awarding and/or results obtained, within a formal learning setting supporting a wide range of delivery and assessment practices [CWA ZZZZ], such as:
- Traditional, single institution delivery and assessment in terms of a full programme of study
- Provision of lesser learning opportunities (single courses, or learning streams)
- Awarding with experience components
- Shared programmes between different institutions
- Exchange of learners with a sequential or parallel plan of delivery and assessment
Figure 2. Conceptual model ingredients relevant to EuroLMAI
This section defines the domain model of the skeleton EuroLMAI model. The EuroLMAI model is concerned with specific sets of learner achievement information arising from the different administrative processes carried out at the institutions throughout the implementation of educational practice, as well as with the associations amongst them. The EuroLMAI model builds upon information regarding learner information, description of learning opportunities, assessment of qualification for a specific learner and result information for each completed learning opportunity. The EuroLMAI model defines the assemblage pattern of such information in terms of an achievement report configuration, consisting of:
- a Learner instance, representing the individual enrolled in a formal learning opportunity (part or full programme of study, course, work experience, etc.)
- an Issuer instance, representing the authority that awards credits and/or qualifications and/or attests learner participation in the described learning opportunities including any associated results gained
- at least one Learning Opportunity object, which, depending on its function and level, may comprise any or all of the following information:
- description of a learning opportunity or period of learning the learner currently or formerly enrolled in, and in case of successful completion, of the qualification achieved, including the actual result for the specific learner
- description of possible component units (each of which may contain provider, credit, and result information for the specific learner)
- and optionally, a set of additional information properties.
Figure 3. The EuroLM Achievement Information skeleton domain model
Figure 3 illustrates the domain model in UML. Attention is drawn to UML for an explanation of the underlying semantics of this diagram. Each box in the diagram relates to a Class (see section 7.3.1 Classes). Each named association (line with label) in the diagram represents an Association Property (see section 7.3.2 Association Properties). The Resources of this model are either defined in this specification or in the MLO-AD standard [CWA 15903]. Attribute Properties from other relevant standards have also been reused. Arrows on named associations indicate the direction in which traversal between instances can occur. No cardinality is specified for any association. Lines with an unfilled diamond shape represent an association with an aggregation relationship, indicating that one class is a part of another class.
The following elements represent the Resources (classes, association properties and attribute properties) defined for European Learner Mobility Achievement Information.
Definition: Individual currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity (part of,or full programme of study, seminar, work experience, single course, etc.)
Definition: The body that issues the EuroLMAI report
Comments: May be the same as the Provider of the top-level learning opportunity, but the role is different.
Definition: A grade or classification of the actual outcome for a learning opportunity for a learner as stated by a provider or the issuing body
Label: Has Result
Sub Property Of: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/relation
Definition: A relation of a resource to a Result
Comments: For example, the relation of a learning opportunity instance to a result
Definition: The status of a result
Comments: For example, whether the result has been already assessed or is a predicted result. See the status vocabulary encoding scheme (section 8.1)
|COMMENT - SCOTT|
Possible property definition for Result to express value - Pls. review proposals and comment
For HEAR, we defined result as being a simple String value. However in ELM currently there is no place to hold a "value" for a result, only its status. There are several approaches possible:
1. Define a "value" property to hold "the value of the result".
This fits current practice but is quite weak semantically. For example, valid values may be "63%", "PASS", "A", "merit" etc. This is a known issue for transcripts, where students can end up with a mixture of result styles. (Current recommendations for HEAR are to try where possible to harmonize on (I think) letter grades.) However there is a diversity of practice now, and no real clarity about future directions, so we have to be flexible.
This could be helped by a Note explaining that the property should be refined for specific result schemes where known, enabling better interpretation and comparison of results.
Some possible examples of bindings:
a. Binding maps "value" to text content and "status" to attribute
b.Binding maps both properties to elements
c. Binding refines value property
d. JSON binding
2. Recommend the use of a description property to describe the result
3. Don't define anything
|COMMENT - SIMON|
I'm inherently suspicious of "status" elements, and status here is no exception. The problem is when a distinction in status changes the very nature of the information represented. This is a personal view, but I believe that predicted grades are much overused, and I fear that having predicted and achieved grades distinguished just by "status" sends entirely the wrong semantic message, and does not allow for the extra elements that would be needed properly to deal with other aspects of prediction.
I would much prefer two distinct elements. Yes, it seems more complex, but I believe clearer, less prone to problems, and therefore better in the long run. For instance, I would be happy with "result" and "predictedresult" (with any capitalisation, spacing, punctuation etc.)
A less satisfactory alternative would be to have to sub-elements of "result", one being "value" and the other being "predictedvalue".
To capture correctly proper semantics for predicted results, I would say that one would need
Because there is all this reasonably required semantics within predicted results, that is the reason I would strongly favour to distinct elements, result and predictedresult, and not making the distinction at the level of value and predicted value, let alone simply with a status element.
Your other discussion points look very helpful. On quick reflection (fallible!) I would say that the main value types are
|COMMENT - CLEO|
Could we consider a refinement of the Result class, to a PredictedResult class?
We could then associate PredictedReslt to an Agent providing the prediction.
By the way an Agent could be a base class for Issuer, Awarding Body, Assessment Body or any other organisation having a role within the conceptual model and will be addressed in future activities (e.g. assessment modelling).
Label: Additional Information
Definition: Additional information concerning the resource
Comments: For example, additional information about a EuroLMAI report
Label: Issue Date
Sub Property Of: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date
Definition: The date on which the resource was formally issued
Comments: For example, the date of issue of the EuroLMAI report
The following Resources defined in the MLO-AD specification [CWA 15903] are applicable within the EuroLMAI domain.
Label: Learning Opportunity Object
Label: Learning Opportunity Provider
Label: Learning Opportunity Specification
Label: Learning Opportunity Instance
Label: Offered At
Label: Has Part
The entire set of attribute properties defined by the MLO-AD specification is applicable within the EuroLMAI domain.
The following Properties defined in the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set [ISO 15836] are applicable within the EuroLMAI domain.
Comments: The content should conform to a URI, as defined by IETF- RFC2396.
Label: Education Level
The following Properties defined in the vCard MIME Directory Profile [IETF-RFC2426] are applicable within the EuroLMAI domain.
The following Properties defined in the Educational Credit Information Model [CWA XXXX] are applicable within the EuroLMAI domain.
Legal values of the vocabulary for the elm:status property are:
- Predicted: The result is a predicted value based on performance to date
- Achieved: The result is a final result
9. The EuroLMAI Description Set Profile
The EuroLMAI model was based on the approach of developing an application profile of existing specifications. Application profiles can be defined as schemas which consist of data elements drawn from one or more namespaces, combined together by implementers, and optimised for a particular local application. A EuroLM Achievement Information report comprises the following components:
the Achievement Information report itself[SIMON]
- information about the learner currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity
- information about the issuer of the report (institution attesting the learner's achievements and/or awarding the learner with a qualification)
- Information about the learning opportunity the learner has taken, any associated results obtained, and the qualification possibly achieved
- Information about the components studied as well as the result and credits in those components
- Other achievement information
The following sections provide constraint clauses for the resources of the EuroLMAI model.
The EuroLM Achievement Information report is a record that contains achievement information for a learner within a formal educational setting.
- A EuroLM Achievement Report instance MUST contain one and only one instance
- A EuroLM Achievement Report instance MUST contain one and only one instance
- A EuroLM Achievement Report instance MAY contain at least one
instanceLearning Opportunity [SIMON], representing the learning opportunity for which achievement information are represented within the scope of the report
- A EuroLM Achievement Report instance MAY contain one and only one property
- A EuroLM Achievement Report instance MUST contain one and only one property
A EuroLMAI Learner instance should adhere to the following constraint clauses.
- An elm:Learner instance MUST contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier property
- An instance MAY contain at least one http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#Given property
- An instance MAY contain one and only one http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#Family property
- An instance MAY contain one and only one http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#BDay property
A EuroLMAI Issuer instance should adhere to the following constraint clauses.
- The instance MUST contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier property
- The instance MAY contain
at leastat most one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title property for any given language [SIMON]
- The instance MAY contain
at leastat most one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description property for any given language [SIMON]
- The instance MAY contain any other properties allowed as defined in the MLO-AD standard for Learning Opportunity Provider [CWA 15903]
A EuroLMAI Learning Opportunity consists of an instance and an instance associated with the instance using the association property.
A EuroLMAI Learner Opportunity Specification instance should adhere to the following constraint clauses.
- An instance MAY have zero or more child instances associated using the mlo:hasPart associations, representing modules or sub-components of the parent learning opportunity specification.
- Each instance MUST contain
one and onlyat least [SIMON: someone may have taken the same course many times] one instance, associated using the association.
- Depending on the function of the described learning opportunity, the corresponding instance MAY contain one and only one property or any number of mlo:credit properties.
- Attention is drawn to the optional, though recommended use of the following properties:
- An instance SHOULD contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier property
- An instance SHOULD contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title property
- An instance SHOULD contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description property (if applicable)
- An instance SHOULD contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type property (if applicable)
- Each instance MAY contain any other properties allowed as defined in the MLO-AD standard [CWA 15903].
A EuroLMAI Learner Opportunity Specification instance should adhere to the following constraint clauses.
- Each instance MAY contain one and only one instance, associated using the association.
- Each instance MAY contain one and only one instance, associated using the association.
- Each instance MAY contain any other properties allowed as defined in the MLO-AD standard [CWA 15903]
A EuroLMAI Result instance should adhere to the following constraint clauses.
- Each elm:Result instance MAY contain one and only one property.
The use of the Qualification property within the EuroLMAI model is constrained as follows:
- Each property MAY contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier property
- Each mlo:qualification property MUST contain at least one http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title property
- Each mlo:qualification property MAY contain zero or more http://purl.org/dc/terms/educationLevel properties
|COMMENT - SCOTT|
There is a further question which is whether to treat 8.8 as a separate CWA, as "MLO: Qualification Information Model", rather than core ELM. I'm sure like "Educational Credit Information Model" it could be easily reused by bindings of MLO-AD, for example. The question is really whether its worth it given how simple it is (re-use of 3 existing properties plus some guidance on their use) I'll see if I can draft something to see what it looks like.
The use of the Credit property within the EuroLMAI model is constrained as follows:
- Each property MAY contain zero or more http://purl.org/net/cm/level properties
- Each property MUST contain one and only one http://purl.org/net/cm/scheme property
- Each property MUST contain at least one http://purl.org/net/cm/value property
This section includes diagrammatic representations of recommended uses of the skeleton EuroLMAI model, for facilitating a number of processes in the context of educational practice involving different levels of achievement information reporting (interim study reports, qualification achievement reports, transcripts, courses taught at other institutions, etc.).
This case represents achievement information about a learner who has enrolled in an official programme of study and has completed part of the programme offered by a single or multiple providers (interim report). The learner has not yet obtained the corresponding qualification.
Figure 4. EuroLMAI report instance for completed part of programme of study
The EuroLMAI instance for this case includes the descriptions of:
- a Learning Opportunity at the programme level, containing information on the programme the learner has enrolled in, without including any result information, since the qualification has not yet been obtained by the learner
- Learning Opportunities as component units of the described programme (transcript level), which the learner has taken and achieved specific credits and results
- where a unit of the programme is offered by another institution, the corresponding learning opportunity must make reference to the Provider that offered the unit (course, work experience, etc.) To represent this, the Learning Opportunity Instance of the component MUST contain the basic details of the other institution such as the institution name.
Figure 4 provides an example structure of a EuroLMAI report for a learner that has completed two course units, both at the institution offering the programme the learner has enrolled in.
This case represents achievement information about a learner who has enrolled in an official programme of study and has completed a specific period of learning, like a semester or year.
Figure 5. EuroLMAI report instance with transcript information for a period of learning
A EuroLMAI report of this nature could be structured as follows:
- including three levels of learning opportunities, the topmost representing the programme of study, the next offering a grouping placeholder for the components units that relate to the specific period of learning, while the third comprising detailed information about each of the component units
- including, at the top level, a learning opportunity which represents the period of learning of the programme of study and at a second level, the associated component units.
The Learning Opportunity Instance representing the period of learning MAY have associated overall credit or result information, as required by the specific educational system.
Figure 5 illustrates a EuroLMAI report instance for a learner that has completed all the course units of a programme year and has obtained an overall result and credit for this period of learning.
In the case of an achieved qualification obtained by the learner upon successful completion of a programme of study, the EuroLMAI report can be structured in any of the following ways:
- comprise the information sections illustrated in case 10.1. Learning opportunities and associated credits and results gained by the learner MUST be represented for each component unit of the programme.
- represent only the information concerning the learning opportunity corresponding to the programme of study with explicit reference to the qualification and the overall result obtained
The Learning Opportunity Instance at the programme level MUST make reference to the Provider that offered the programme.
Within the context of the European Higher Education Area, Higher Education Institutions need to issue Achievement Reports on qualifications adhering to the Europass Diploma Supplement Information structure. The Europass DS is fully supported by the EuroLMAI through a concrete Application Profile of the generic model, which defines specific refinements and constraints, as these are imposed by the DS information recording requirements [CWA WWWW].